Heart disease is one of the most important health care problems in the world. Roughly 15-20 per cent of patients attending hospitals have heart-related problems. Before super specialisation in medicine, heart problems were being looked after Gen medicine (MD Medicine) doctors. But now practically everywhere in the developed world, we have special doctors trained specifically to treat heart diseases & they are called cardiologists. Now there are further sub-divisions in cardiovascular medicine.
These people have a reasonable overall knowledge of heart & its disorders. Mostly they look after patients clinically & evaluate them by various investigations like ECG, X Rays, Stress Test, Echocardiography & others.
These doctors are trained in doing various procedures like angiography, Angioplasty, Percutaneous Valve Therapies like opening the narrowed valves with Baloon Dilatation & now even replacing the valves in the cath lab without open surgery.
These doctors are trained specifically to diagnose & treat heart Rythm problems. Like slowing of heart rate (Bradycardia), fast heart rate (tachycardia), irregular heartbeat or any combination of these. These guys implant pacemakers, ICDs, CRT-P & CRT-D devices usually under local Anaesthesia. Another important job they do is Radiofrequency Ablation for many Arrhythmias.
These people are basically surgeons who perform all kinds of heart surgery like CABG, Open Valve Replacement, Repair of congenital heart defects etc. These surgeries are done by opening the chest under GA in operation theatres.
These doctors perform TMT, Holter, Echo, Stress Echo, Dobutamine echo & 24 hours BP Monitoring etc. This branch has become very important in the practice of cardiovascular medicine.
These doctors are specialists in the prevention of heart disease & also do rehabilitation of cardiac patients.